Isaac Scientific Publishing

Current Works in Mineral Processing

Review on the Applications of Apparent Mean Shape Factor on the Integration of Coarse and Fine PSDs Measured by Different Techniques: Quartz Example

Download PDF (2081.7 KB) PP. 30 - 42 Pub. Date: March 25, 2019

DOI: 10.22606/cwimp.2019.11004


  • U. Ulusoy1,*, M. Yekeler1, O.Y. Gülsoy2
    1Department of Mining Engineering, Sivas Cumhuriyet University, TR-58140, Sivas, Turkey
  • N. A. Aydoğan2, C. Biçer1 and, Z. Gülsoy1
    2Department of Mining Engineering, Hacettepe University, TR-06532, Ankara, Turkey


In most industry where grinding is utilized, particle size, which is a decisive element in establishing the productivity of production processes and execution of the end product, is analyzed to describe the size distribution of particles in a given sample. In mineral and coal processing, particle size distributions (PSDs) of particulate materials were traditionally accomplished by sieving, which gives inaccurate particle size and PSD below 38 μm. This paper reviews the studies related to the combinations PSDs of different mill products of the same quartz mineral by using different particle size measurement techniques to build the whole PSDs including coarse and fine PSDs. For this purpose, almost pure quartz mineral (which is the most suitable brittle material that gives first order grinding kinetics) ground by ball and rod mill products that are the most widely used conventional mills in mineral processing were measured by different size analysis techniques, i.e. sieving for coarse sizes, Andreasen pipette sedimentation, and laser diffraction for fine sizes below 38 μm and combined them to construct whole size distribution by using apparent mean shape factor, r. The results were satisfactorily well for both cases; PSDs by laser diffraction size distributionsieving and PSDs by Andreasen pipette sedimentation-sieving, i.e., a smooth overlap of corrected laser diffraction and sieving PSDs and Andreasen pipette sedimentation and sieving PSDs were obtained by applying to the particle size distribution with r shifting to the right side of the curves. In the case of determination of PSDs by laser diffraction and sieving, r values determined from the corrected particle size distributions were found to be 1.29 and 1.25 for ball and rod milled products, respectively. The results indicates that there is not significant differences between the shape factors of ball and rod milled products of quartz mineral, i.e. both of them have irregular particles, which deviates from the spherical shape as proved by their SEM microphotographs. On the other hand, for the PSDs by Andreasen pipette sedimentation and sieving, the corrected sedimentation data came closer to the sieving data. It was found that r values determined from the corrected PSDs of the same quartz mineral ground by ball and rod mill were 1.00 and 1.12, respectively. The results show that the rod milled products were not more regular in shape than ball milled products as evidenced by SEM pictures and previous works. Thus, this approach can be utilized for the integration of PSDs analyzed by different techniques for coarse and fine sizes of fine particulate coals, minerals, and similar materials ground finely.


Quartz, sedimentation size, sieve size, laser diffraction size, particle size distribution (PSD), apparent mean shape factor.


[1] Pabst W. & Gregorová, E., (2007). ICT Prague 2007, Characterization of particles and particle systems.

[2] Allen, T. (1990). Particle Size Measurement, 4th ed., New York: Chapmann and Hall.

[3] Jillavenkatesa, A., Dapkunas, S. J., & Lum, L. H., (2001). Particle Size Characterization, Special Publication 960-1, NIST Recommended Practice Guide, p. 27.

[4] Horiba Instruments Inc , (2010). A Guidebook to particle size analysis

[5] Stanford, R.E., & Patterson, B.R., (2007). Controlled particle size distributions using Linear Programming, Powder Technology, 176, 114–122.

[6] Cirulis, D., (2017). Particle Size Tracking System vs. Traditional Measurement Techniques, E&MJ, March, p. 58

[7] Kelly, E.G. & Spottiswood, D.J. (1982). Introduction to mineral processing, John Wiley &Sons Inc., New York, USA, pp. 21–22.

[8] Wills, B.A. & Napier-Munn, T., (2006). Wills’ Mineral Processing Technology, An Introduction to the Practical Aspects of Ore Treatment and Mineral Recovery, 7th revised ed. Elsevier Publisher,

[9] Ikechuks, G. A., (2011). The effects of particle size on the wettability of Akwuke coal using continuous flow technique, Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering and Computer Science, San Francisco, USA, vol. 2, pp. 237–247.

[10] Kðk, M.V., Özbas, E., Hicyilmaz, C., & Karacan, Ö., (1997). Effect of particle size on the thermal and combustion properties of coal, Thermochim. Acta, 302, 125–130.

[11] Mohns, C.A., (1997). The Effects of Particle Size on the Kinetics of Coal Froth Flotation Master’s thesis Queen’s University, Ontario, Canada.

[12] Boylu, F., Dincer, H., & Atesok, G., (2004). Effect of coal particle size distribution, volume fraction and rank on the rheology of coal–water slurries, Fuel Process. Technol., 85, 241–250.

[13] Brikci-Nigassa, M., Garbett, E.S., & Hedley, A.B., (1982). The effect of coal particle size on the performance of a fluidised bed coal combustor, Prepr. Pap. Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Fuel Chem. (U. S.) 27.

[14] Schneider, C. L., Neumann, R. & Souza, A. S. (2007). Determination of the distribution of size of irregularly shaped particles from laser diffractometer measurements, Int. J. Miner. Process. 82, 30–40.

[15] Zhang, Z. Yang, J. Ding, L. Zhao, Y., (2012). An improved estimation of coal particle mass using image analysis, Powder Technol. 229, 178–184.

[16] Ko, Y.-D. & Shang, H., (2011). Time delay neural network modeling for particle size in SAG mills, Powder Technol. 205 250–262.

[17] Eshel, G. Levy, G.J., Mingelgrin, U., & Singer, M.J., (2004). Critical evaluation of the use of laser diffraction for particle-size distribution analysis, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 68 (3) 736–743.

[18] Ghasemy, A., Rahimi, E., & Malekzadeh, A., (2019). Introduction of a new method for determining the particlesize distribution of fine-grained soils, Measurement, 132, 79–86.

[19] Oja, M., Tuunila, R., 2000. The influence of comminution method to particle shape, Proceedings of the XXI Int. Min. Proc. Cong., Rome, Italy, July 23–27, p. C4-64-70.

[20] Johnston, R.G., & Reuter, J. M. (1993). Mineral uses in paint and their effect on quality, SME Annual Meeting, Reno, Nevada, 15-18 February.

[21] Ulusoy, U., Yekeler, M., Biçer, C. & Gülsoy, Z., (2006). Combination of the Particle Size Distributions of Some Industrial Minerals Measured by Andreasen Pipette and Sieving Techniques, Particle & Particle Systems Characterization, 23 (6) 448-456.

[22] Ulusoy,U., Gulsoy, Ö. Y., Aydogan, N. A., & Yekeler, M., (2008). Combination of laser diffraction and sieve size distribution by determining the mean shape factors, Particulate Science and Technology, 26, (2) 158-168.

[23] Leschonski, K., (1979). Sieve analysis, the cinderella of particle size analysis methods, Powder Technology, 24, 115–124.

[24] Allen, T. (2003). Powder Sampling and Particle Size Determination, Elsevier Science Ltd., pp. 208–250.

[25] Rhodes, M. J. (2008). Introduction to particle technology, John Wiley & Sons Ltd., pp. 12–13.

[26] Allen, T., (1992). Particle Size Measurement, Chapman & Hall. 4th Ed.

[27] Igathinathane, C., Ulusoy, U., & Pordesimo, L.O., (2012). Comparison of particle size distribution of celestite mineral by machine vision Volume approach and mechanical sieving, Powder Technology, 215-216C, 137-146.

[28] Lambourne, R., (1993). Paint and Surface coatings–theory and practice; (Ed.), Ellis Horwood Ltd., ISBN 0-13- 030974-5PGk

[29] Levoguer, C., (2013). Using laser diffraction to measure particle size and distribution, May/June MPR, pp. 11- 18,

[30] Ma, Z., H. G. Merkus, J. G. A. E de Smet, C. Heffels, & Scarlett, B., (2000). New developments in particle characterization by laser diffraction: size and shape, Powder Technology, 111: 66-78.

[31] Kippax, P., (2005). Measuring particle size using modern laser diffraction techniques, Paint&Coatings Industry, August.

[32] Austin, L. G., (1998). Conversion Factors to convert particle size distributions measured by one method to those measured by another method, Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 15: 108-111.

[33] Austin, L. G., and I. Shah. 1983. Powder Technol., 35: 271-278.

[34] Ulusoy U., & Yekeler, M., (2004). Variation of critical surface tension for wetting of minerals with roughness determined by Surtronic 3+ instrument, Int. J. of Miner. Process., 74, (1-4): 61-69.

[35] Ulusoy, U., Yekeler, M. & Hicyilmaz, C., (2003). Determination of the shape, morphological and wettability properties of Quartz and their correlations, Minerals Engineering, 16, (10): 951-964.

[36] Stokes, G. G., (1891). Mathematical and Physical Paper III, Cambridge University Press,

[37] Sympatec Company, Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Germany.

[38] Austin, L. G., Tras, O., Dumm, T. F., & Koka, V. R., (1998). Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 5, 13-15.

[39] Kaya, E. Hogg, R. Kumar, S. R., (2002). Particle shape modification in comminution, KONA, 20, pp. 188-195.

[40] Austin, L. G., Yekeler, M., Dumm, T. F., & Hogg, R., (1990). The kinetics and shape factors of ultrafine dry grinding in a laboratory tumbling ball mill, Part. Syst. Charact., 7, 4, pp. 242-247.

[41] Bond, F. C., (1954). Control particle shape and size, Chem. Eng., pp. 1028-1032.

[42] Heywood, H., (1961). Powders in Industry, Soc. Chem. Ind., pp. 25-26.

[43] Durney, T. E., & Meloy, T. P., (1986). Particle shape effects due to crushing method and size, Int. J Miner. Proc., 16, 109-123.

[44] Lefond, S. J, (1983). Industrial Minerals and Rocks, 5th ed., vol. 2, SME, Littleton,