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Advances in Astrophysics
AdAp > Volume 5, Number 1, February 2020

Absolute Magnitude Test: Testing Cosmological Models Based on Compilations of Supernovae SNe Ia “Union” and “Union2”

Download PDF  (2997.8 KB)PP. 18-36,  Pub. Date:December 25, 2019
DOI: 10.22606/adap.2020.51003

Author(s)
Abraham P. Mahtessian, Garen S. Karapetian, Vardan H. Movsisyan, Lazar A. Mahtessian
Affiliation(s)
NAS RA V. Ambartsumian Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO), Armenia
NAS RA V. Ambartsumian Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO), Armenia
NAS RA V. Ambartsumian Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO), Armenia
NAS RA V. Ambartsumian Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO), Armenia
Abstract
In the present work, on the basis of compilations of supernovae Sne Ia Union and Union2, two cosmological models describing the Universe are considered. One of them (a model with a cosmological constant of zero) was widespread until 1998 when a study of type Ia supernovae showed that the Universe is expanding at an accelerating rate. After that, a model for the case of a flat universe, which is also discussed in this paper, received great recognition. To accept or reject any cosmological model, it is proposed to carry out a test based on the statement that the absolute magnitude of type Ia supernovae should not depend on the redshift (MSNeIa 6= MSNeIa(z)), i.e. these supernovae are distance indicators. (This test is especially important when own software is used to analyze the Hubble diagram, as was done for example by Kowalski et al. 2008 and Amanullah et al. 2010.) It turns out that the values of the model parameters obtained according to this principle are also confirmed by the Hubble diagram. It is with these data that the best approximation of the observed data is obtained. Mathematical analysis of the Hubble diagram speaks in favor of a model with a cosmological constant of zero. This model also has one important advantage: it does not need to accept the idea of such a hypothetical substance as “Dark Energy”. Thus, it turns out that we are in open space, filled to about 30% of the critical density of matter, which participates in gravitational interaction and expands with deceleration. This value coincides with the accepted amount of visible and dark matter. If all the same to accept the model of flat universe, then we must abandon the superiority of energy over mass (  < 0.5).
Keywords
Cosmological models, supernovae, absolute magnitude test, dark energy, dark matter: general.
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