Isaac Scientific Publishing

Advances in Astrophysics

On the Cosmology of Electromagnetic Wave Energy in Expanding Universes

Download PDF (451.3 KB) PP. 91 - 97 Pub. Date: May 8, 2018

DOI: 10.22606/adap.2018.32004


  • Hans-Jörg Fahr*
    Argelander Institut für Astronomie, Universität Bonn, 53121 Bonn, Germany
  • Michael Heyl
    Space Administration, German Aerospace Center, 53229 Bonn, Germany


Modern cosmology considers several different ingredients entering the energy-momentum tensor of the GTR-field equations, amongst them normal baryonic matter, dark matter, dark energy and photons. The photons are usually taken as negligibly influencing the present-day expansion dynamics because they are seen as permanently loosing energy due to being cosmologically redshifted. In an earlier study we have discussed why this view is questionable and why freely propagating photons, while being transported in an expanding universe, do not change their energy. In this paper, instead of using a cosmic photon view, we treat the cosmic electromagnetic radiation field as a system of monodirectional wave modes. Single photons moving with the velocity of light can not be described as sources of gravity, raising the question how cosmic photons hence may contribute to the cosmic gravity field. Here we conclude that photons or the associated electromagnetic waves can only be described as gravity sources, if they constitute a form of localized standing energy. To represent localized energy, electromagnetic waves in an appropriate manner have to interfere with their counter-propagating waves of an appropriate phase shift  to produce standing waves. We describe the energy distribution of monochromatic standing waves and consider these monodirectional, monochromatic wave modes as undamped wave modes freely extending over the dimension of the universe. We show that they keep a constant mode energy despite the cosmic expansion connected with the shift of their wavelengths proportional to the cosmic scale S. With these considerations we obtain an expression for the energy density of standing electromagnetic waves and show that their wave energy density scales with S−3, instead like S−4 as expected for the cosmic radiation energy density by the present-day cosmology. We conclude that with our present result we confirm an earlier study carried out on the basis of freely propagating single photons, since on both ways we find that the energy density of cosmic electromagnetic radiation scales identically to the scaling of the cosmic matter density, namely according to S−3.


Cosmic background radiation – dark matter – theory


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