Theoretical Physics

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Volume 5, Number 4, December 2020

A Conceptual Model to Explain Dark Matter and Dark Energy
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50-71

, Pub. Date:January 26, 2021
DOI:

10.22606/tp.2020.54002
**Author(s)**
Jonathan Blackledge

**Affiliation(s)**
Honorary Professor, School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa; Honorary Professor, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Technological University Dublin, Ireland; Visiting Professor, Faculty of Arts, Science and Technology, Wrexham Glyndwr University of Wales, UK; Distinguished Professor, Centre for Advanced Studies, Warsaw University of Technology; Professor Extraordinaire, Faculty of Natural Science, University of Western Cape, South Africa; Stokes Professor, Science Foundation Ireland.

**Abstract**
This paper considers a conceptual model that attempts to explain ‘Dark Matter’ and
‘Dark Energy’. The model is based on considering a gravitational field to be the result of a mass (a
Higgs field) scattering pre-existing cosmic background space-time waves or ‘Uber-waves’. The term
‘Uber’ is used to denote an outstanding or supreme example of a particular kind of gravitational
wave with cosmic-scale wavelengths that are far in excess of those associated with the gravitational
waves generated by accelerating masses. Such waves are taken to be the very lowest frequency
components associated with the spectrum of space-time waves generated by the ‘Big Bang’ and
are supported by the expanding fabric of space-time produced at the point of the big bang, i.e.
the lowest frequency components of a cosmological spectrum whose bandwidth is the a Planck
frequency (～10∧43 Hz). Like electromagnetic waves, Uber waves are taken to propagate with an
upper velocity consistent with the speed of light and interact with, and are scattered by, a Higgs field.
This interaction produces the effect of a mass locally curving space-time, an idea that is contrary to
the conventional model associated with General Relativity where mass is taken to curve space-time
directly which otherwise remains ‘flat’. By assuming the pre-existence of background Uber waves, we
consider the concave curvature of such waves to generate an apparent attractive gravitational force.
This interaction produces the effect of a mass locally curving space-time, an idea that is contrary to
the conventional model associated with General Relativity where mass is taken to curve space-time
directly which otherwise remains ‘flat’. By assuming the pre-existence of background Uber waves, we
consider the concave curvature of such waves to generate an apparent attractive gravitational force.
This attractive force is taken to govern the formation of large scale structures of matter (galaxies
and super-clusters of galaxies, for example) in the conventional sense but surrounded by a residual
background gravitational field. It is this residual field that gives rise to the effect known as dark
matter where more gravity (as an attractive only force) appears to be available than that which
can be accounted for by the observed (luminous) mass, a luminosity that is generated primarily by
nuclear fusion in stars. The convex curvature of Uber waves is considered to account for cosmic voids
within which gravity is a repulsive force and where large scale structures of matter can therefore
not be formed. This is considered to explain the super-large cosmic voids or super voids that are
observed. These are regions of the universe where there is an absence of rich super clusters of matter.
In these anti-gravity zones, only relatively small structures of matter can be formed by electrostatic
forces alone which are then repelled from each other when their mass becomes significant enough
for the force of anti-gravity to become significant. In such regions of an Uber wave, the matter
generated from electrostatic forces builds up to produce a weak gravitational repulsive field due to
the low mass density within a void. However, due to the immense size of these cosmic voids, they
are taken to generate a net repulsive force which is considered to be the reason for the acceleration
associated with the expansion of the universe; the effect of dark energy. This effect also accounts for
the cosmic web structure in which luminescent matter appears to exist in relatively thin connective
filaments. The purpose of this paper is to provide a conceptual model and not to investigate the
ideas proposed in any significant mathematical detail. This is accomplished by building up the
ideas on a case-by-case basis, coupled with a series of thought experiments but without resorting
to specific physical scales or the physical parameters associated with these scales other than, by
default, the speed of light and Newton’s gravitational constant.

**Keywords**
gravitational waves, Uber (space-time) waves, dark matter, dark energy

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