Isaac Scientific Publishing
Psychology Research and Applications
PRA > Volume 1, Number 1, March 2019

The Pains of Sexual Abuse and the Efficacy of Psychotherapy in Treating Psychological Distress in a Sexual Abuse Victim

Download PDF  (636.2 KB)PP. 1-8,  Pub. Date:March 26, 2019
DOI: 10.22606/pra.2019.11001

Dauda Akwai Saleh
Department of Psychology, Plateau State University Bokkos, Nigeria
This study investigates the pains of sexual abuse and the efficacy of psychotherapy in treating psychological distress in a 22 year old undergraduate student who was sexually abused between ages 7 and 9. Single case pre/post test experimental design utilizing a mixed method using qualitative and quantitative approach was utilized in this study. The study lasted for 13 sessions of psychotherapy. All data were manually analysed, client’s raw scores were compared with the mean scores/cut-off points of instruments of data collection. Two research questions were answered in this study; Pre test result revealed that, based on SCL-90, participant had significant levels of psychological distress on 9 sub scales with the total score of 218, depression had the highest score of 40, followed by anxiety with 31, Interpersonal sensitivity 29, Obsessive compulsive 23, Phobic anxiety 23, Psychoticism 21, Paranoid ideation 17, Neuroticism 11 and Hostility 10. On PCL- S, participant’s score of 54 is significant for the diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder. The score of 28 on Beck Depression inventory indicate moderate level of depression. While on Beck Hopelessness scale, the score of 5 indicate mild level of hopelessness. Result of the second research question (post-test) after the 10 session of psychotherapy revealed that, participants scores on all instruments reduced; On SCL-90; only 3 subscales were significant with lower scores compared to results of pre test, Obsessive compulsive 21, Interpersonal sensitivity 17, and Paranoid ideation 16, with the total SCL-90 score of 100.On PCL- S participants score of 32 indicate absence of PTSD. Participant’s score of 9 and 0 onBeck depression inventory and Beck Hopelessness scale falls within the normal/minimal levels ofdepression and hopelessness respectively. The researcher recommends that, parents and care giversshould be cautions of those who take care of their wards and the child act right should beimplemented in all states of the federation. There is the need for awareness in schools and amongwomen groups on sexual abuse among children.
Pains, sexual abuse, efficacy, psychotherapy, treating, psychological distress
  • [1]  Abdulkadir, I., Musa, H. H., Umar, L. W., Musa, S., Jimoh, W.A. Na'uzo, A. M., (2011). Child Sexual Abuse in Minna, Niger State Nigeria. Nigerian Medical Journal. Vol. 52 Issue 2
  • [2]  Abdulkadir, I., Umar, L. W., Musa, H. H., Musa, S., Oyeniyi, O. A., Ayoola-Williams, O. M., & Okeniyi, L. (2011). Child sexual abuse: A review of cases seen at general hospital Suleja, Niger state. Ann Nigerian Med;5:15-9
  • [3]  Beck, A. T., Shuyler, D., & Herman, I. (1974). Development of suicide intent scales. In A. T., Beck, H. L. P. Resnik, & D. J. Lettieri (Eds), The Prediction of Suicide (pp. 45-56). Bowie, MD: Charles Press
  • [4]  Beck, A. T., Weissman, A., Lester, D., & Trexler, L. (1974). The measurement of pessimism: the hopelessness scale. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 42, 861-865
  • [5]  Blanchard, E. B., Jones-Alexander, J., Buckley, T. C., & Forneris, C. A. (1996). Posttraumatic stress disorder among patients with or facial pain. Journal of Orofacial pain, 19, 309-317.
  • [6]  Community- University Partnership for the Study of Children, Youth and Families (2011). Review of the Beck Depression Inventory 2nd Edition (BDI-II). Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
  • [7]  Cully, J. A., & Teten, A. L. (2008). A therapist's guide to brief cognitive behavioural therapy. Department of Veterans affairs, South Central mental illness research education research (MIRECC), Houston.
  • [8]  Derogatis, L. R., Lipman, R. S., & Covi, L., (1977). SCL-90R: administration, scoring and procedures manual. Baltimore, John Hopkins University School of medicine, clinical psychometrics research Unit.
  • [9]  Durham, T. W. (1982). Norms, reliability and item analysis of the hopelessness scale in a general psychiatric, forensic psychiatric and college populations. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 38, 497-600.
  • [10]  Envuladu, E. A., Umaru, R. J., Banwat, M. E., Lar, L. A., Lassa, S., Zoakah, A. I., (2013). Sexual abuse among female secondary school students in Jos, North Central Nigeria. Journal of Medicine in the Tropics. Vol 15, No 1
  • [11]  Erinoso, O. A., (1996). The source of Stress among Nigerian retirees. In omoluabi, (1997) manual series editor. Department of Psychology University of Lagos, Nigeria.
  • [12]  Finkelhor, D. (2012). Characteristics of crimes against juveniles. Durham, NH: Crimes against Children Research Centre.
  • [13]  Goldman, R. J., & Goldman, J. D. G.m (1988). The prevalence and nature of child sexual abuse in Australia, Australian Journal of Sex, Marriage and Family, Volume 9, Issue 2. DOI: 10.1080/01591487.1988.11004405
  • [14]  Goodyear-Brown, P. (ed.) (2012) Handbook of child sexual abuse: identification, assessment and treatment. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley.
  • [15]  Kendall-Tackett, K., (2001). The long shadow: Adult survivors of childhood abuse. Chapter from: The hidden feelings of motherhood: Coping with mothering stress, depression and burnout. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger, 2001
  • [16]  Kenneth S. Kendler, M.D., et al, (2000). Medical college of Virginia Commonwealth University, Archives of General Psychiatry; 57:953-959.
  • [17]  Kilpatrick, D. G., Ruggiero, K. J., Acierno, R., Saunders, B. E., Resnick, H. S., & Best, C. L. (2003). Violence and risk of PTSD, major depression, substance abuse/dependence, and comorbidity: Results from the National survey of adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 692-700.
  • [18]  Kring, A. M., Johnson, S. L., Davidson, G. C., & Neale, J. M. (2010 ). Abnormal psychology. (11th Edition). John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
  • [19]  Miller, T. R., Cohen, M. A., & Wiersema, B. (1996). Victim costs and consequences: A new look. U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice: NCJ 155282
  • [20]  National Center for Juvenile Justice (2001) Sexual assault of young children as reported to law enforcement: Victim, incident, and offender characteristics. www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/pdf/saycrle.pdf
  • [21]  Omoluabi, P. F., (1996). Development of retirement Stress inventory (PSI). Unpublished manuscript. Department of Psychology, University of Lagos.
  • [22]  Onighaye, M. A., (1996). The impact of the length of time in the university on ego identity, self esteem and stress manifestation in students. Unpublished B.Sc Thesis, psychology Department, University of Lagos.
  • [23]  Osadan, R., & Reid, E., (2015). Child sexual abuse and sexual aggression in children. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, Vol. 5, No. 6(1)
  • [24]  Saleh, D. A. (2016). Application of 5D’s in managing cravings for substance abuse. Researchjournali’s Journal of Public Health Vol. 2, No. 4
  • [25]  Smith, M. L., & Glass, G. V. (1977). Meta-analysis of psychotherapy outcome studies. American Psychologist, 32(9), 752–760.
  • [26]  Townsend, C., & Rheingold, A.A., (2013). Estimating a child sexual abuse prevalence rate for practitioners: studies. Charleston, S.C., Darkness to Light. Retrieved from www.D2l.org retrieved 1/5/2016
  • [27]  Wang, Y., & Gorenstein, C. (2013). Psychometric properties of the Beck depression inventory- II: a comprehensive review. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria. 35:416-431. Doi:10.1590/1516-4446-2012-1048
  • [28]  Weathers, F. W., Litz, B. T., Herman, D. S., Huska, J. A. & Keane, T. M. (1993) The PTSD Checklist (PCL): Reliability, validity, and diagnostic utility. Paper presented at the 9th Annual Conference of the ISTSS, San Antonio
  • [29]  Whealin, J. (2007). “Child sexual abuse”. National centre for post traumatic stress disorder, US Department of Veterans Affairs.
  • [30]  Yuan, N.P., Koss, M.P., & Stone, M. (2006, March). The psychological consequences of sexual trauma. Harrisburg, PA: VAWnet, a project of the National Resource Centre on Domestic Violence. Retrieved from: http://www.vawnet.org retrieved on the 16/5/2016
Copyright © 2019 Isaac Scientific Publishing Co. All rights reserved.